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The injectisome and Host-Pathogen cross talk

The human intestine that harbors the microbiota is also a port of entry of a large number of pathogens. The intestinal epithelium, which constitutes the primary host barrier to the microbiota, must distinguish commensal bacteria from pathogens such as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). This distinction is critical for both maintaining tolerance towards beneficial commensal bacteria and eliciting an inflammatory response against pathogens. We are investigating how the epithelial cells and EPEC interact including host response and counter measures taken by EPEC, employing a molecular syringe termed injectisome (aka type III secretion system T3SS) to inject the host with effectors that subvert host cell processes.


  1. Mills E., Baruch K., Charpantier X., Kobi S.and I. Rosenshine (2008) Real time analysis of effector translocation by the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic E. coli Cell Host Microbe, 3: 104-113

  2. Nadler C., Baruch K., Kobi S., Mills E., Farago M., Alkalay I., Bartfeld S., Meyer T. F., Ben-Neriah Y., and Rosenshine I. (2010) The Type III secretion effector NleE inhibits NF-κB activation. PLoS Pathogens, 6: e100074

  3. Baruch K., Gur-Arie L., Nadler C., Koby S., Yerushalmi G., Ben-Neriah Y., Yogev O., Shaulian E., Guttman C., Zarivach R., and Rosenshine I., (2011) Metalloprotease Type III effectors that specifically cleave JNK and NF-κB. EMBO J. 30:221-231.

  4. Mills E., Baruch K., Aviv G., Nitzan M. and Rosenshine I. (2013) The dynamics of the type III secretion system activity of enteropathogenic E. coli mBio 4:e00303-13.

  5. Litvak Y., Sharon S., Hyams M., Zhang L., Kobi S., Katsowich N., Dishon S., Nussbaum G., Dong N., Shao F. and Rosenshine I. (2017) Epithelial cells detect functional type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli through a novel NF-κB signaling pathway. PloS Pathogen 13(7):e1006472

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